Gnus must also know where to fetch its messages from. Suppose your primary newsserver is foo.bar.com, your second one is your local newsserver and the third one is news.gnus.org. Furthermore, you want to read Mails from the POP3 server pop.provider.com and use the nnml backend for this (see section mail for further information).
This means that you are supposed to take the Lisp code given, modify it as appropriate for your situation, and insert it into the file ~/.gnus.el (or sometimes some other file, but that will be made explicit). You can find the right file by typing C-x C-f ~/.gnus in Emacs.
In order to be able to distinguish native groups from secondary groups, each server is identified with a (unique) name and that name is used as a prefix for the secondary groups. Thus, you might have a group gnu.emacs.help (which is native) and another group nnml:mail.misc (which is secondary). A plus character is used if the name of a server is not the empty string. For example, given the following in your ~/.gnus.el file
What is the difference between mail backends and mail sources? Well, mail backends tell Gnus how to store messages, whereas mail sources tell Gnus where to fetch them. So Gnus fetches mail from the mail sources and stores them in the mail backends. Mail sources are specified via the mail-sources variable, mail backends are normally specified via the gnus-secondary-select-methods variable.
Just replace frumple with the name of your POP server and jrl with your login name on the POP server. This line goes in the file ~/.gnus.el. As spefified above, Gnus will then ask for your password when you fetch mail, but it gives you the choice of remembering the password for the session. You can also put the password into ~/.gnus.el:
If you want to see old messages, use C-u to enter a group, or type C-u M-g from within the group. If you always want to see old messages for a specific group, hit G c (not g c) on it and frob the display parameter. If you want to see old messages for several groups, you can also set the parameter on a topic. If you want to do it by group name, see the variable gnus-parameters (in recent Gnusae only).
Group info is stored in the .newsrc.eld file (in the same location as gnus-startup-file), and includes extra info not accesible via normal group parameter editing (gnus-group-edit-group-method). You can alter group info using the gnus-set-info function, but to make sure the new settings are permanent you may need to edit .newsrc.eld (after quitting gnus). For more info about .newsrc.eld and other startup files see the manual: _7.html#Startup-Files
All articles have a default score (gnus-summary-default-score),which is 0 by default. This score may be raised or lowered eitherinteractively or by score files. Articles that have a score lower thangnus-summary-mark-below are marked as read.
Wildebeest is an Afrikaans name that means "wild beast." Gnu is a derivation of the name used by native Africans. The names are used interchangeably. A gathering of gnus is called a herd. However, James Lipton (of "Inside the Actors Studio" fame) coined the phrase "implausibility of gnus" in his 1968 book "An Exultation of Larks." He didn't explain what he meant. The term caught on, and according to the Terms of Venery blog, there have been at least 63 published works that use the phrase.
During this migration, about 6,250 gnus, or 0.5 percent of the total herd, drown while crossing the Mara River. However, there is a silver lining to these deaths: The decaying bodies feed local scavengers, including vultures and fish, and leave behind nutrients and minerals in the ecosystem, according to a study published in 2017 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
After a gestation of eight to eight and a half months, and at the beginning of the rainy season, 500,000 baby gnus are born in February and March each year, according to National Geographic. These babies are called calves, and they are quite large. Calves can weigh 44 to 49 lbs. (20 to 22 kg) at birth.
Calves learn to walk within minutes of birth and in a few days they are part of the herd, walking alongside their mother. It takes the mother six to nine months to wean her young. At 16 months to 76 months, young gnus are ready to mate and can live to around 20 years old.
In nature, gnus, or wildebeests, are categorized as one of two species - blue or black - but on May 30, 2009, a herd of them charged into town, sporting every color imaginable as part of the community-based art project Gnus of Gnu London. Conceived over a year ago as a fund-raiser for the Kearsarge Community Center (KCC) by New London Inn owner Bridget LeRoy, the gnus were sponsored by businesses and individuals, and painted by local artists including Colby-Sawyer students and alumnae Alison Vernon '90 and Annie Ballin '82. They will be on display through October 1 and auctioned on October 11 to raise additional funds for the KCC.
The Galligans love what the students did with the gnu. "Everything about it is great - it would take pages to egnumerate all its positive qualities," enthuses President Galligan. "The colors and the golden horns give it a mythological look - ours is no gnu-age gnu but a timeless gnu, a sun and fire gnu, rather than a gnuclear age gnu. People ask me what it's name is – Gnucomb? Gnuberry? Gnute? – and I tell them we haven't decided yet. Susan and I also like gnudling around town to look at all the other gnus."
The variety and creativity of all the gnus makes walking the town a special treat these days. It's clear that some gnus are painted with a theme directly related to its sponsor, but the Colby-Sawyer gnu was a blank canvas that the students were free to make completely their own.
Annie Ballin '82 is the executive director of the KCC and painted three gnus. Sponsored by Mark Loehr, “Gnucleus” stands outside the Chamber of Commerce Information Booth; the New London Agency's “Peace Gnu” features John Lennon-style glasses and the lyrics to his song “Imagine,” and the “Love Gnu,” sponsored by the Friends of the New London Shopping Plaza and located near the entrance to MacKenna's Family Restaurant.
Visitors and residents alike have a couple more months to enjoy the Gnus of Gnu London. Stop by the Chamber of Commerce Information Booth to pick up a walking map of the gnus' locations. Collect 18 of 22 possible stamps along the stampede trail, and return to the chamber office for a free gift. You'll be entered to win the grand prize of dinner for four at the Inn at Pleasant Lake, and you certainly don't have to be a gnu to enjoy that view.
info-gnus-english --Announcements and discussions for GNUS, the GNU Emacs Usenet newsreader (in English) About info-gnus-english English (USA) The list has the same charter as info-gnus. The difference is thatEnglish is the only official language of the list.info-gnus-english/gnu.emacs.gnus is forward to info-gnus, but NOTvice-versa.
Note: your real INBOX folder will still show up in the *Group* buffer, press `u' over it to hide it (don't use `k', if you kill it, gnus won't look for the read/unread marks in your INBOX, and your nnvirtual folder will show everything as unread).
There are several ways to find messages in Emacs. From the summarybuffer, you can use / o (gnus-summary-insert-old-articles) to displayall or some old messages. You can then scan through the headers in thesummary buffer by using C-s (isearch-forward), or you can limit thedisplayed messages with these commands:
Limits work on the messages that are currently displayed, so you canapply multiple limits. If you make a mistake, use / w(gnus-summary-pop-limit) to remove the previous limit. You can repeat/ w (gnus-summary-pop-limit) until satisfied. To remove all thelimits, type C-u / w (gnus-summary-popl-limit).
You can fuck that up to your heart's delight by fiddling with thegnus-group-line-format variable. This variable works along thelines of a format specification, which is pretty much the same asa printf specifications, for those of you who use (feh!) C.
The gnus-large-newsgroup variable says what Gnus should considerto be a big group. If the group has more unread articles than this,Gnus will query the user before entering the group. The user can thenspecify how many articles should be fetched from the server. If theuser specifies a negative number (`-n'), the `n' oldestarticles will be fetched. If it is positive, the `n' articles thathave arrived most recently will be fetched.
If gnus-auto-select-first is non-nil, the first unreadarticle in the group will be displayed when you enter the group. If youwant to prevent automatic selection in some group (say, in a binarygroup with Huge articles) you can set this variable to nil ingnus-select-group-hook, which is called when a group is selected.
If you are using a threaded summary display, you can sort the threads bysetting gnus-thread-sort-functions, which is a list of functions.By default, sorting is done on article numbers. Ready-made sortingfunctions include gnus-thread-sort-by-number,gnus-thread-sort-by-author, gnus-thread-sort-by-subject,gnus-thread-sort-by-date, gnus-thread-sort-by-score,gnus-thread-sort-by-total-score.
The function in the gnus-thread-score-function variable (default+) is used for calculating the total score of a thread. Usefulfunctions might be max, min, or squared means, or whatevertickles you fancy.
Gnus considers groups on between levels 1 andgnus-level-subscribed (inclusive) to be subscribed,gnus-level-subscribed (exclusive) andgnus-level-unsubscribed (inclusive) to be unsubscribed,gnus-level-zombie to be zombies (walking dead) andgnus-level-killed to be killed, completely dead. Gnus treatssubscribed and unsubscribed groups exactly the same, but zombie andkilled groups have no information on what articles you have read, etc,stored. This distinction between dead and living groups isn't donebecause it is nice or clever, it is done purely for reasons ofefficiency. 2b1af7f3a8