Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.
Those Martian weather reports, received here daily from more than 200 million miles away, start right here at Viking l's meteorology instrument. Mounted atop the extended boom, the meteorology sensors face away from the spacecraft. They stand about four feet above the surface and measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind velocity and wind direction. The cable parallel to the boom is connected inside the spacecraft body with the electronics for operating the sensors, reading the data and preparing it for transmission to Earth. A second Mars weather station will begin operation next month when Viking 2 lands somewhere in the planet's northern latitude Viking 2 arrives at Mars and goes into orbit tomorrow (August 7).
In 2410, Ramarlar Akham'Rar, the God King of Krebar, heralded a new age for the Tajarans as he launched an unmanned probe into orbit of Meralar. A simple propaganda spouting satellite, just to prove his splendor to his other God King peers. This led to a scramble for the stars as the Hakar tried to top each other for the "Apotheosis to the Stars." Other Tajaran nations of course took notice, offered scientific and economical support to their favored Hakar factions out of purely pragmatic reasons; a space race, after all, means satellites, and perhaps ring harvesting. Only five decades later, manned flight became viable enough for the Tajarans to reliably leave their home planet and explore deep space, accumulating into a boom in the economy and rejuvenation of the nations of Meralar. 2b1af7f3a8