To better understand what happens inside the clinical setting, this chapter looksoutside. It reveals the diverse effects of culture and society on mental health,mental illness, and mental health services. This understanding is key to developingmental health services that are more responsive to the cultural and social contextsof racial and ethnic minorities.
Culture refers to a groups shared set of beliefs, norms, and values (Chapter 1). Because common social groupings(e.g., people who share a religion, youth who participate in the same sport, oradults trained in the same profession) have their own cultures, this chapter hasseparate sections on the culture of the patient as well as the culture of theclinician. Where cultural influences end and larger societal influences begin, thereare contours not easily demarcated by social scientists. This chapter takes a broadview about the importance of both culture and society, yet recognizes that theyoverlap in ways that are difficult to disentangle through research.
Family risk and protective factors for mental illness vary across ethnic groups.But research has not yet reached the point of identifying whether the variationacross ethnic groups is a result of that group's culture, its social class andrelationship to the broader society, or individual features of family members.
There exist thousands of traditions and culture in India, and quite a few of them would leave outsiders rather curious. But the crux of Indian society and culture has always been to be well mannered, polite, respect others, and progress together.
Society is nothing but an organised group of people who live together and are connected with one another. It is not exactly same as culture, which can be understood as the way of living of people living in a particular place or region. Every society has its culture, but they are not the same thing. Although, they cannot exist without each other.
Culture has certain values, custom, beliefs and social behaviour, whereas society encompasses people who share mutual beliefs, values and way of living. This article attempts to shed light on the differences between society and culture in a detailed manner.
Basis for ComparisonCultureSocietyMeaningCulture refers to the set of beliefs, practices, learned behavior and moral values that are passed on, from one generation to another.Society means an interdependent group of people who live together in a particular region and are associated with one another. What is it?It is something that differentiates one society from the other.It is a community of people, residing in a specific area, sharing common culture over time.What it does?It unites the social framework through influence.It shapes the social framework through pressure.RepresentsRules that guide the way people live.Structure that provides the way people organize themselves.IncludesBeliefs, values and practices of a group.People who share common beliefs and practices.ExamplesFashion, lifestyle, tastes & preferences, music, art, etc.Economy, village, city etc.
In simple terms, society implies the bunch of people who organise themselves and lives together in a particular geographical area and come in contact with each other. The members of the society share common attributes like values, traditions and customs. They also share similar cultures and religion. Each and every member is important to the society, as its existence depends on the members only.
As a way to greet people in different countries, the different cultural trait is followed. For instance, in the United States people used to shake hands when they meet someone, in India people join their hands, in Japan and China people bow down from the waist, in Belgium kiss on one cheek is a way to greet someone irrespective of the gender. This is how culture of one society differs from that of another. So it is true to say that different societies have different cultures.
A cultural norm codifies acceptable conduct in society; it serves as a guideline for behavior, dress, language, and demeanor in a situation, which serves as a template for expectations in a social group.Accepting only a monoculture in a social group can bear risks, just as a single species can wither in the face of environmental change, for lack of functional responses to the change.Thus in military culture, valor is counted a typical behavior for an individual and duty, honor, and loyalty to the social group are counted as virtues or functional responses in the continuum of conflict. In the practice of religion, analogous attributes can be identified in a social group.
Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies. These include expressive forms like art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies like tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including practices of political organization and social institutions), mythology, philosophy, literature (both written and oral), and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society.
When used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs, traditions, and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time. In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is also used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture (e.g. "bro culture"), or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism hold that cultures cannot easily be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is necessarily situated within the value system of a given culture.
Cultural invention has come to mean any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior but which does not exist as a physical object. Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period," driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the human population explosion, among other factors. Culture repositioning means the reconstruction of the cultural concept of a society.
Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action. These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change. For example, the U.S. feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may also enter as factors. For example, after tropical forests returned at the end of the last ice age, plants suitable for domestication were available, leading to the invention of agriculture, which in turn brought about many cultural innovations and shifts in social dynamics.
In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, "cultural studies [were] grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition." The American version of cultural studies initially concerned itself more with understanding the subjective and appropriative side of audience reactions to, and uses of, mass culture; for example, American cultural-studies advocates wrote about the liberatory aspects of fandom. The distinction between American and British strands, however, has faded. Some researchers, especially in early British cultural studies, apply a Marxist model to the field. This strain of thinking has some influence from the Frankfurt School, but especially from the structuralist Marxism of Louis Althusser and others. The main focus of an orthodox Marxist approach concentrates on the production of meaning. This model assumes a mass production of culture and identifies power as residing with those producing cultural artifacts. In a Marxist view, the mode and relations of production form the economic base of society, which constantly interacts and influences superstructures, such as culture. Other approaches to cultural studies, such as feminist cultural studies and later American developments of the field, distance themselves from this view. They criticize the Marxist assumption of a single, dominant meaning, shared by all, for any cultural product. The non-Marxist approaches suggest that different ways of consuming cultural artifacts affect the meaning of the product. This view comes through in the book Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman (by Paul du Gay et al.), which seeks to challenge the notion that those who produce commodities control the meanings that people attribute to them. Feminist cultural analyst, theorist, and art historian Griselda Pollock contributed to cultural studies from viewpoints of art history and psychoanalysis. The writer Julia Kristeva is among influential voices at the turn of the century, contributing to cultural studies from the field of art and psychoanalytical French feminism.
Another important issue today is the impact of tourism on the various forms of culture. On the one hand, this can be physical impact on individual objects or the destruction caused by increasing environmental pollution and, on the other hand, socio-cultural effects on society.
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